// Aida's Brothers & Sisters
// Opening the Gates for Black Opera Singers
(by David Mermelstein - New York Times: February 13, 2000)
It must have seemed like such an inconsequential decision back in 1939. By barring Marian Anderson from singing at Constitution Hall simply because she was black, the Daughters of the American Revolution were merely fol1owing Washington custom. Yet this single act of discrimination would have an impact far beyond the capital's cultural life. lt would, in fact, light a slow-burning fuse, one that set off an explosion in late 1955 when another black woman - Rosa Parks - refused to move to the back of a Montgomery, Ala., bus " Like Ms. Parks, Ms. Anderson did not meekly accept the injustice. Having been refused the DA.R. hall, she sang instead at the Lincoln Memoria1, to a crowd of 75,000 on Easter Sunday. The scene is indelible: the modest but unbowed contralto, standing at the temple to the Great Emancipator, singing "America". That image stands at the center of a new documentary, "Aida's Brothers and Sisters Black Voices in Opera", which will be shown on wednesday in PBS's "Great performances" series.
The program charts the complex history of black Americans and their struggles to enter the musical mainstream. Unfolding without benefit of narration, the documentary allows those who helped break the color barrier, and those who fol1owed in their wake, to relate the story in their own fashion.
The filmmmakers, Jan Schmidt-Garre and Marieke Schroeder, have assembled a roster of witnesses that includes Anne Brown, who in 1935 created the female lead in "Porgy and Bess" ;Camilla Williams, the first to record that role in its entirety; Betty Allen, a friend of Ms. Anderson and the president emeritus of the Harlem School of the Arts; Grace Bumbry, the first black to sing at the Bayreuth Festival; and the sopranos Shirley Verrett and Barbara Hendricks. Among the array of vintage film clips in the program is the particularly gratifying one of the soprano Leontyne Price singing before a D.A.R. gathering 43 years after the organization barred Ms. Anderson. But the story of the black ascent in American concert and operatic life began well before the Lincoln Memorial concert. Though thwarted by fierce prejudice, Elizabeth Greenfield and Marie Selika, both born slaves, had significant careers during the 19th century. And Sissieretta Jones, dubbed the "Black Patti," in Reference to the celebrated soprano Adelina Patti, performed before four American presidents and at Madisonsquare Garden before retiring in 1916.
Unlike white singers from the late 19th century on, none of these early black divas left a recorded legacy. "The most regrettable aspect of any discussion of black opera singers is that there may have been black singers as great as Melba or Patti, but we'll never know for sure,"said Rosalyn Story, the author of "And So I Sing: African-American Divas of Opera and Concert", which the filmmakers relied on heavily for their work. Ms. Anderson, it is true, was the first black to sing at the Metropolitan Opera, in 1955, preceding the baritone Robert McFerrin (the father of Bobby) by three weeks. And that milestone, coupled with the legendary Easter Sunday concert, assured her iconic status in the annals of social as well as musical history. But others were staking claims in opera contemporaneously with Ms. Anderson, and even before her.
Ms. Williams, whose 1951 recording of Bess remains a benchmark, made her debut at the New York Gity Opera in the title role of "Madama Butterfly" in 1946, nearly a full decade before Rudolf Bing allowed Ms. Anderson to grace the Met stage. Unmentioned in the documentary is the tenor Roland Hayes, who died in 1977. A recitalist who performed from World War I until 1972, he was the first black singer to appear with a symphony and the first to bring spirituals to predominantly white audiences. The importance of re1igion in establishing and supporting black singers can hardly be underplayed. In the film,the bass-baritone Simon Estes and Ms.Hendricks draw direct links between their musicianship and their faith. "The ability to express the suffering in a Mozart aria is something that I learned from singing spirituals", Ms. Hendricks says. Ms. Verrett calls these songs of sorrow and faith: "America's music". Ms Williams chimes in with a mini-primer on spirituals, deconstructing "Nobody Knows the Troubles I've Seen" in the process. "You can't sing a Negro spiritual and be proper", she says wryly.
Of course, no account of blacks in opera is complete without reference to "Porgy and Bess" and the lingering controversy as to whether Gershwin's folk opera (even that term invites argument) helped or hindered black singers. Ms. Allen, who ran the Harlem School of the Arts for more than a decade, confesses that she at first "loathed"the work.And Ms.Bumbry terms it" an insult". to black people, a curious comment coming from a woman who sang Bess at the Met just 15 years ago. Others disagree. In the film, Bobby McFerrin says that Gershwin should be applauded for an honest attempt at understanding the black experience. Apart from this program, Peter Hemmings, the excutive director of the Los Angeles Opera, called the piece "a great help to black singers, because it has given them substantial work over many years".
In a telephone interview, Ms. Story, who appears in the documentary, largely agreed with Mr. Hemmings, referring to the l985 Met production in which Ms. Bumbry starred as a "pivotal point" in the history of black singing. With the nation's premiere opera house suddenly committed to employing scores of black singers, an unrivaled showcase emerged for b1ack ta1ent. "It put black people on the minds of those who die for opera", Ms. Story said. "And so they got jobs, at least for a while. BUT Ms. Story, who is herself black, sees black success on the operatic stage as something that requires continued cultivation. Like most observers, she thinks overt racism is not much of a factor anymore.
Yet that alone, she says, won't guarantee the gains. "It's not,like the 60's now,when people made an extra point of including people of color,"she said. "We don't have that kind of spirit now. Opera is not removed from that, and hiring for opera is a very subjective thing. So with the exception of extraordinary talents like Jessye Norman and Kathleen Battle, who are going to be hired regardless, if you're not necessarily thinking about black people, they can be easily overlooked".
Ms. Schroeder,too, senses that fewer blacks are visible on opera stages today than, say, 10 years ago. "I don't want to take a position on that subject," she said by telephone from Germany. "But I do wonder why there are so few young black singers at the moment." Mr. Hemmings, whose business is hiring opera singers, will have none of it, "I honestly don't think about what color people are when we're casting", he said. "Nor do I feel that it's important that we should have black singers merely because they're black singers. We have a black resident artist at the moment, but We don't have him because he's black. We have him because he's a good singer." Of course, the last word - if there is a last word on this tangeled subject-really belongs to black artists themselves, for no one better understands the impact of race on their work. Ms. Hendricks, for one, freely admits that her color has fed her musicianship. Yet she is quick to point out that she considers art universal And "not worth breaking down into little categories". "When I stand onstage and sing Schubert", she said in a recent conversation, "I don't sing it as a black woman I just sing it".
// "Aida`s Brothers and SistersÂ´is fine music drama"
(by Robin Washington - Boston Herald: February 15, 2000)
Everybody knows, or should know, the story of Marian Anderson: Denied a 1939 engagement by the Daughters of the Revolution, the great black contralto took her concert out of the Lincoln Memorial at the urging of Eleanor Roosevelt and created a performance far more memorable than whatever was sung to the grand ladies of the DAR. at Constitution Hall.
Operatic though that incident might have been in plot, it was not entirely so musically, unless "My Country Tis of Thee" has been incarnated as an aria in some yet-to-be- discoverted work. Regardless, Anderson is linked indelibly with opera, and her story, along with those of the black artists who followed her, are chronicled in Great Performances "AidaÂ´s Brothers and Sisters: Black voices in Opera" (...)
Anderson finally did grace the stage of the Met in 1953 to become its first black singer and helped to end American apartheid a year before the Supreme Court`s decision in Brown vs. Board of Education. Like Jackie Robinson, who broke Major League Baseball`s color barrier six years earlier, Anderson soon was followed by other African-Americans. Two weeks after her debut, Robert McFerrin became the forst black male to sing at the Met. Unlike Anderson, he was offered a three-year contract, sparking a career that if not notalbe for its own achievements would have been respected for spawning that of Robert McFerrin the younger, or Bobby as he is known to fans of "Don`t Worry, Be Happy" fare.
Indeed, it is the voices of black forebears that inform the contribution of Leontyne Price, Simon Estes and Barbara Hendricks, whose entrances on opera`s main stage have long buried any notion that blacks do not belong there or that the form would be worth following today without them. "The ability to express the suffering of a Mozart aria is something that I learned from singin spirituals," says Hendricks in the 90-minute film. Be that as it may, one should not assume that spiritual singing comes naturally just because the singer is black. "I did learn from Sylvia Lee that my singing of spirituals is terrible!" says diva Martina Arroyo, invoking the master voice coach who preceded Anderson as the Met`s first black staff member.
If there is a sin of omission in the film, it is the absence of any further mention of Lee. A barely 5-foot-tall dynamo. Lee shares the fair skin of her mother, Sylvia Olden, who was offered a Met contract in 1913 and would have eclipsed Anderson by four decades - if she had chosen to pass for white. Yet the film does include others who never graced the opera stage but contributed greatly to it. Most notable is Paul Robeson, who had no problem singing spirituals or any other kind of music. His influence also defines dignity - in changing , for instance, the last lines of "Old Man River" from "I`m tired of living, but fraid of dyin" to "I must keep fighting until IÂ´m dyin".
That spirit lives on in the decades since, in which blacks have played every nontraditional role - from George Shirley`s Pinkerton to Arroyo`s Cio-Cio San in Puccini`s "Madama Butterfly" - as well as those relegated to them. "I did my first Sport'n` Life (from "Porgy and Bess") in 1998. At this point, I felt I could afford to do it, " Shirley says with a chuckle.
One drawback: Interviews in the German-produced show are framed by wannabe-arty travelogue footage thatÂ´s seemingly inspired by DieterÂ´s "Schprockets" school of producing. Ignore it. close your eyes and listen, which, at heart, is the point.
// John LeonardÂ´s TV Notes
(New York Magazine - February 21, 2000)
Aida`s Brothers and Sisters: Black Voices in Opera is an absorbing look, with fabulous archival footage, at the struggle of African-American singers to achieve such stages as the Metropolitan, from Marian Anderson and Paul Robeson to Leontyne Price and Simon Estes, from Martina Arroyo and Bobby McFerrin to Jessye Norman, Grace Bumbry, Shirley Verrett, and George Shirley. They all tell horror stories, usually in good humor. Don`t miss Edward Said, taking time off from the Middle East to speak of music.
// Black opera singers star in film
(by Tichard Dyer - The Boston Globe: February 16, 2000)
"Aida`s Brothers and Sisters" is a documentary about African-American singers in opera that airs tonight. (...)
Flawed by the consequences of low budget and lofty pretensions, it is nevertheless worth wathching for sime wonderful views of Marian Anderson, Leontyne Price, Shirley Verrett, Jessye Norman, Reri Grist, and Paul Robeson in full cry and by some spectacular displays of ego, eccentricity, personality, and intelligence in the inteview segments.
Apparently Price, Norman, and Kathleen Battle, who goes unmentioned, declined to participate in this film by Jan Schmidt-Garre and Marieke Schroeder; their absence weakens it. Longtime Boston opera lovers will be happy to see how often Verrett appears to comment with sharply focused observations, and there is a tantalizing glimpse of her as Saint-Saens`s Dalila. Anne Brown, who created Bess in "Porgy and Bess," speaks briefly and brightly, and we see her in a film of "Summertime"; others speak very disparagingly of Gershwin`s opera. Other divas interviewed include Betty Allen, Martina Arroyo, Grace Bumbry (who discusses shades of Max Factor stage makeup with great enthusiasm), Grist (as precise and elegant in speech as in song), Barbara Hendricks, and Camilla Williams (in the most outrageous get-up of all). Tenors George Shirley and Thomas Young, along with baritone Simon Estes, eloquently state the problems that African-American men face in opera. Paul Robeson Jr. and Bobby McFerrin (son of Robert McFerrin, the first African-American man to sing at the Met) deputize for their fathers. There is cultural commentary from stage director Goetz Friedrich, Edward Said, who is inclined to spout off; and Rosalyn M. Story, who wrote the book about this subject, "And So I Sing," offers perspective and shading.
The film has manneristic touches. Most of the interviews occupy only a portion of the screem immage; the rest of it is taken up with desolate urban landscapes that pass by in the style of a 19th- century panorama, although what this has to do with opera or indeed with most of these cosmopolitan singers is unclear. Members of Opera Ebony also appear to link eposodes by performing scenes in arty stagings that do not conceal the lack of orchestral accompaniment, or accompaniment of any kind, Geraldine McMillian, who sang Aida for the Boston Lyric Opera this season, is one of them.
Controversial subjects are not shirked - "Is there such a thing as a black voice?" - "Do male African-American singers pose a sexual threat onstage that troubles an audience?" The film opens and closes with images of Anderson, singing both at the historic Lincoln Memorial concert in 1939 and at President John F. Kennedy`s inauguration - 22 years, but, the film makes clear, not enough, then or now; there`s still a long road to travel.
// TV celebrates Black singers in opera field
(by Kimberly C. Roberts - Philadelphia Tribune: February 15, 2000)
"If it doesnÂ´t bother you that Zinka Milanov really isn`t Ethiopian when she sings Aida, if it doesn`t bother you that Mario Del Monaco isnÂ´t a Moor when he sings, Othello ... if youÂ´re not bothered by that, then why would you be bothered by the fact that I am African American, singing the role of a French nobleman?"
Tenor George Shirley poses this thought-provoking question in a Great Performances special, "AidaÂ´s Brothers and Sisters: Black Voices in Opera". (...)
Fittingly, this enlighening program begins with Marian Anderson, whose groudbreaking contributions paved the way for today`s operatic stars such as Kathleen Battle, Denyce Graves, Jessye Norman and Simon Estes, who are celebrated worldwide. "She was our mother, in effect, of every Black singer," said mezzo-soprano Betty Allen. "She was the mother who opened the door for us. She made everything possible, She opened all those doors that had been closed. All the hotel rooms that would become open for us to stay , all the halls that people said we couldn`t sing in. She made things possible for us."
There are also observations from some of our greatest voices, including Shirley Verrett, Anne Brown and Reri Grist. Rosalyn M. Story, whose volume "And So I Sing" is considered the definitive account of African-American divas and their roots. Barbara Hendricks gives testimony to the influence that the "negro" spiritual has on a Black singerÂ´s approach to classical music. Martina Arroyo recalls "shakin in her shoes" when internationally acclaimed African-American vocal coach Sylvia Lee, a Mount Airy resident, coached her in the spirituals, and Paul Robeson, Jr. shared an amusing anecdote about his legendary father.
In a most intriguing, telling moment, the great Grace Bumbry, who is being interviewed by a German reporter at the 1961 Bayreuth Festival, answers his question in fluent German.
In addition to breathtaking performances by established stars such as Leontyne Price, Jessye Norman and Simon Estes, we also get to hear, in a particularly inspiring segment, some promising young Black voices, both male and female, as the artistic torch is passed by their ebullient and talented teacher Dianne Randolph.
"Aida`s Brothers and Sisters" is far more than an entertaining episode about the unique history lesson that celebrates our rich and varied heritage.
// Aida`s Brothers and Sisters â€“ Black Voices in Opera and Concert
-DVD of the month / Editors Choice, Gramophone Magazine-
An engaging and thought-provoking history from Jan Schmidt-Garre
Jan Schmidt-Garre has made four films since the 1992the history of black singers overcoming racism and prejudice is mostly told by the singers themselves, Shilrey Verrett, Reri Grist and Grace Bumbry in particular, and if George Shirley and Simon Estes are outnumbered, then Shirleyâ€™s rhetorical question offers a pointed explanation: if youâ€™re not bothered by Zinka Milanov singing Aida, why is the idea of him singing a French nobleman still uncomfortable? The filmâ€™s tour of the issues such as what makes a black voice allows for a brief excursion on what might make a black opera: the debate over Porgy and Bess is crystallised by Edward Said, for whom itâ€™s â€žcondescendingâ€ś, and Bobby McFerrin, with his praise for Gershwinâ€™s attempt to â€žunderstand the black experienceâ€ś. The extracts are too brief to give pleasure in themselves (and itâ€™s a shame they are unsubtitled), except for Marian Anderson singing â€žAve Mariaâ€ś at Christmas 1939 and Jessye Norman as Straussâ€™s Ariadne, both lit from within by unshakeable technique and faith in their own powers of communication. Norman and Leontyne Price have probably been the most visible represenatives of black voices in opera, and the film perhaps loses a little authority without their personal witness. In compensation, we see Price dedicationg her appearance in 1982 at the convention of the ballgowned and beribboned Daughters of the American Revolution to the memory of Anderson, whom the convention had infamously shunned in 1939. The film ends on a downbeat, With Paul Robesonâ€™s eloquent fury at being forbidden to travel outside the US for his communist sympathies abd â€žAnti-Americanâ€ś activities. By declining invitations to star at the great opera houses, Robeson chose not to be a standard-bearer for Black participation of White culture-a role left to Price in particular-but became th efulcrum to unite issues of racial, class and cultural equality. The path to those temples is rockier now than it was in the age of the Black diva. Back in 1999, Verrett hopes that â€žthe Metropolitan can get back to the place that it wasâ€ś. Whatever they tried hasnâ€™t worked: Nicole Cabell ist he sole singer of African-American ancestry scheduled to take a lead role at either the Met or Chicago Lyric opera in the 2009-10 season.
Peter Quantrill, Gramophone November 2009-11-19
Dass die USA seit fast einem halben Jahr erstmals einen schwarzen PrĂ¤sidenten haben erscheint angesichts der Aussagen berĂĽhmter afroamerikanischer SĂ¤nger in Jan Schmidt-Garres und Marieke Schroeders Film â€žAidas Brothers and Sisters von 1999 als damals schier unerreichbare Utopie. Was etwa Barbara Hendricks oder Grace Bumbry, Reri Grist oder Simon Estes zur Situation Schwarzer SĂ¤nger auf den Opern- und KonzertbĂĽhnen zu sagen haben, von welchen KĂ¤mpfen und DemĂĽtigungen der Weg zum Erfolg begleitet wurde, wie wenige sich weltweit durchgesetzt haben und wie SĂ¤nger etwa die wunderbare Marian Anderson diskriminiert wurden â€“ davon erzĂ¤hlt dieser Film auf so unverstellte Weise, dass oft blanker Zorn aufsteigt. Etwa die tragische Geschichte des einmaligen Bassisten Paul Robeson, der als Schwarzer und als Kommunist gleich zweimal in Amerika missachtet wurde und dort nicht auftreten konnte, dafĂĽr in der feindlichen Sowjetunion oder in der DDR als wahrer Amerikaner propagandistisch gefeiert wurde. Neben den bewegenden Archivaufnahmen aus Oper und Konzert beeindrucken die bitteren Kommentare der Stars, so jener von George Shirley: â€žStĂ¶rt es Sie, dass Zinka Milanov keine Ă„thiopierin ist wenn sie Aida singt? StĂ¶rt es jemanden, dass Mario del Monaco kein â€žMohrâ€ś (im englischen Originalton sagt Shirley tatsĂ¤chlich â€žmoorâ€ś!) ist, wenn er Othello singt? Wenn das niemanden stĂ¶rt, warum tut es dann der Umstand, dass ich als Afroamerikaner die Rolle eines franzĂ¶sischen Edelmannes singe?â€ś
Harald Eggebrecht, SĂĽddeutsche Zeitung, 26.10.2009